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Monday, 20 November 2017

Canadian self-unloading bulk carrier J.W. McGriffin 1971-1999 and Niagara 1999-




Launched on 16 December 1971 by the Canadian Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd. of the Collingwood Shipyards Ltd. with hull number 197 for account of the Canada Steamship Lined Ltd. Of Montreal, Canada. Building costs 13.000.000 Canadian dollars. Dimensions 730’0” (over all) x 75’00”x 30’03 1/16” (summer) x 46’06” (hold) or 222,50 x 22,86 x 9,22 (summer) x 14,17 metres. Cubic coal carry capacity 34.500 net tons (30.804 tons or 31.298mt). Fitted out with five cargo holds accessible by 22 hatches. Used for transport coal, grain, coke, stone and iron ore. On 24 December 1998 laid up at the Port Weller Dry Docks at St. Catherines where the forward part of her hull ad the self-unloading system were renewed. Rebaptized Niagara on 15 June 1999 by Mrs. Catherine Warry. She was lengthened with another 10’ (3,05 metres), widened with 3’(0,91 metres) and an increasing of her depth with  1,5’(0,46 metres) resulting in a carrying capacity of 37.694 tons with a maximum mid-summer draught of 31’04” or 9,56 metres or 30.223 tons with a maximum Seaway draught of 26’06” or 8,08 metres. As the Niagara still Canada-flagged, homeport St. Catharines, IMO 7228423, MMSI 316029000 and callsign VCGJ. Gross tonnage 23.983 tons, summer deadweight 34.938 tons and as dimensions 225 x 23 x 6,8 metres. Owned by the CSL Group, Montreal, Canada and managed by CSL International, Beverley, Massachusetts, USA  (elsewhere mentioned V. Ships Canada Inc.). 

Appraisal of 4x2-15,2cm/6” gun arrangement for cruisers by Italian naval expert Bianco di San Secondo according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

An item referred to the Rivista Marittime dated July/August 1938 which published an article written by colonel of naval weapons Bianco di San Secondo in which he made clear why 15,2cm/6” gun were to preferred above the 20,3cm/8” gun as main armament for a cruiser. He did not deny that a hit by a 20,3cm shell could cause much more damage than a 15,2cm shell. But it all depends on what was the target. That were in fact merchant ships, light units below the 3.000 ton and cruisers with an armour of just 6cm or with only the vital parts protected (by 1015cm). The high explosive shell was just effective against armour with a maximum thickness of 30cm regardless a calibre of 6” or 8”. While a 6” gun had a larger rate of fire was she even more effective than a 8” gun. Using shells suitable for penetrating armour was on a longer distance the 8” gun more effective, dealing with a thickness of 6cm no difference but with a thickness of 10cm and more was a 6” shell just able to penetrate on short distance from the opponent. The maximum range of a 6” gun was 25 and that of a 8” gun 30 kilometres. But still the rate of fire of a 6” was higher, a larger number was better for the fire control, easier to man and mechanical problems were less fatale than with 8” guns. Reckoning that a 6” gun had 75% of the score of a 8” guns he calculated the several options with as main conclusion that the main armament of a cruiser should be 6” and not 8“. The 5x3 gun arrangement was the most promising with the highest probably score.

With a 4x2-15,2cm/6” gun arrangement was the weight of the armament 480 tons, broadside weight salvo 2.000 kilo’s and a fire rate 5 of was it possible to fire 40 shells in a minute or every minute 2.000 kilo’s. Weight ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 80, 120 and 160 tons. Weight armament and ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 560, 600 and 640 tons. Probable number of hits 30. 

Soviet submarine strength at Vladivostok according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad 1939 no. 2

An item referred to the Revista Marittime dated November 1938 reporting that the Soviet Union possessed excluded a large number of around 200 ton submarines also 17-900 ton submarines with a range of 7.000 nautical miles. 

Egypt interested in creating her own navy according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad 1939 no. 2

An item referred to the U.S.R. dated 24 November 1938 reporting that the Egyptian cabinet intended to create a own navy for the defence of Egypt to consist for the time being of 36 ships. Choose was for light cruisers, submarines, minelayers and minesweepers although the ration was yet unknown. The Egyptian navy would in this manner numbering more ships as the British Dominions together with Australia possessing 17, Canada 9 and New Zealand 4 ships totally 30. 

Danish garrison stationed on Greenland according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad 1939 no. 2

An item referred to the Proceedings dated November 1938 reporting that Denmark built oil and gasoline depots on the south coast of Greenland and stationed a permanent garrison numberings 6 officers, 7 petty officers and 100 soldiers. 

Japanese submarine I-63 lost according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1939 no. 6

An item referred to the Jap. Chr. dated 9 February 1939 reporting that the Japanese submarine Igo No. 63 sunk in the Bungo Strait when she collided during manoeuvres just before sunrise on 2 February 1939. Of the 81 crewmembers were just 6 saved. The edition dated 9 March reported that the efforts to salvage her were stopped.(1)

Note
1, The I-61 was part of the Kaida-class cruiser submarines with a displacement of 1.829 (surfaced)-2.337 (submerged) tons, launched at the Sasebo Naval Arsenal, Japan on 28 September 1928, completed on 20 December 1928, sunk in a collision with her sister ship I-60 off Kyushu, salvaged in January 1940 and broken up. 

Polish bulk carrier Pomorze 2008-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 19 November 2017

Bahamas-flagged, homeport Nassau, IMO 9346823, MMSI 311358000 and call sign C6WU2. Owned and managed by Polsteam, Szczcin, Poland. Built by Xingang Shipbuilding Heavy Industry, Tianjin, China in 2008. 

Greek crude oil tanker Amalthea 2006-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 19 November 2017

Greece-flagged, IMO 9298650, MMSI 240447000 and call sign SYGJ. Owned and managed by Minerva Marine, Athens, Greece. Built by Daewoo Shipbuilding&Marine Engineering, Geoje, South Korea in 2006. 

Dutch artillery training ship Hr. Ms. Van Kinsbergen 1937-1959 (1974)


Laid down by Rotterdamsche Droogdok Maatschappij, Rotterdam, Netherlands on 11 September 1937, launched on 5 January 1939, commissioned on 21 August 1939, reclassified as frigate in 1950, accommodation ship at Vlissingen, Netherlands since 1 November 1955, decommissioned on 29 May 1959 and sold for ƒ 515.000 to be broken to at Gent, Belgium by Van Heygen on 19 February 1974. Nickname Flying Dutchman.

Displacement 1.760 (standard)-2.388 (full load) ton and as dimensions 100,2 x 11,6 x 3,4 metres or 328.9 x 38.1 x 11.2 feet. Crew numbered 183-220 men. The 2-triple expansion steam engines supplied 17.000hp allowing a speed of 25,5 knots. Light armoured with a 1,3cm/0.51” thick belt, a 2cm/0.79” thick deck and with the conning tower protected by 2cm/0.79”. Original armament consisted of 4-12cm/4.7” guns, 4-4cm/1.57” machineguns, 4-12,7mm/0.50 machineguns and 2 depth charge racks. Since 1941 2-10,5cm guns, 3-4cm machineguns, 2-2cm machineguns, 2 depth chargers and 2 mousetraps. 

Dutch submarine Hr. Ms. O23 1937-1948


Part of the O 21class, consisting of the O21-27, preceded by the O19 class. The O23 was first to be named K XXIII indicating that she was to serve in the Dutch East Indies. Laid down by Rotterdamsche Droogdokdok Maatschappij, Rotterdam, Netherlands on 12 October 1937, launched on 5 December 1939, commissioned on 13 May 1940, escaped to Portsmouth, England, completed by the John Thornycroft shipyard, decommissioned on 1 December 1948 and sold to be broken up in April 1949.

Displacement 990 (surfaced)-1.205 (submerged) tons and as dimensions 77,7 x 6,8 x 3,95 metres or 254.11 x 22,4 x 13,0 feet. The machinery consisted of 2x2.500 bhp diesels and 2x500bhp electric motors allowing a speed of 19,5 (surfaced)-9 (submerged) knots. Range 10.000 (surfaced, speed 12knots)-28 (submerged 8,5) nautical miles. Crew numbered 39 men, Armament consisted of 8-53,3cm/21” torpedo tubes (4-bow, 2 stern, 1x2external-traversssing amidships), 1-8,8cm gun, 2x1-cm machineguns and 1-12,7mm/0.,50“ machine gun . Sunk in the Second World War an Italians tanker and sunk or damaged 4 Japanese ships. 

British protected cruiser 2nd class HMS Dido 1894-1926


Of the Eclipse-class 2nd class protected cruisers, consisting of the Eclipse, Diana, Dido, Doris, Isis, Juno, Minerva. Talbot and Venus, preceded by the Astraea-class and succeeded by the Arrogant-class. Laid down by London&Glasgow Shipbuilding, Govan, Scotland on 30 August 1894, launched on 20 March 1896 (the 18th failed when she sticks on the slipway), completed on 10 May 1898, decommissioned and became as an emergency ship part of the Fleet Reserve, reclassified as a depot ship in 1912 and sold to be broken up on 26 December 1926.

Displacement 5.690 tons and as dimensions 106,7 x 16,3 x 6,25 metres ot 350 x 53.6 x 20.6 feet. Machinery consisted of 2 inverted triple-expansion steam engines and 8 cylindrical boilers supplying via two shafts 8.000 (natural draft)-9.600 (forced draft)-ihp allowing a speed of 18,5 (natural draft)-19,5 (forced draft) knots. Coal bunker capacity maximum 1.075 ton. Her crew numbered 450 men. Original armament consisted of 5x1-15,2cm/6” quick firing guns, 6x1-12cm/4.7” quick firing guns, 6-3pd quick firing guns and 3-45,72cm/18” torpedo tubes (1 stern above the furace and 1 each broadside submerged). After 1905 consisted the armament of 11-15,2cm.6” quick firing guns, 9-7,6cm/3” quick firing guns, 7-30od quick firing guns and 3-4,72cm/18” torpedo tubes. Armour consisted of 3,8cm1.5”-7,6cm/3” thick decks, a 15,2cm/6” thick hatch, 7,6cm/3” thick gun shields with the conning tower protected by 15,cm/6”. 

Dutch naval survey vessel Luymes (A803) 2004-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 19 November 2017

Netherlands-flagged, IMO 9271860, MMSI 245939000 and call sign PAUF. Commissioned on 3 June 2004. Displacement 1.875 tons and as dimensions 75,00 x 13,10 x 4,00 metres. Optional armament 2-12,7mm machineguns. Crew numbers 18 men. Two diesels with total horsepower of 1.564 hp allowing a speed of 12 knots. 

Thais tug Tarua 120 2012-

Thailand-flagged, homeport Bangkok and IMO 9621388. Gross tonnage 424 tons, deadweight 172 tons and as dimensions 22,66 (between perpendiculars)-28,2 (over all)x 11,50-11,81 x 5,10 (design)-5,35 metres. Bollard pull 30 (static)-34 tons. S Schottel screws. Total horsepower 2,882hp supplied by 2 Daihatsu 6DKM-20e.and a speed of 12 knots. Crew number 10 men. Owned and managed by Thailand Port Authority, Bangkok, Thailland. Built by Italthai Marine, Samut Prakan, Thailand with hull number 162 in 2012. 

Panamanian tug Virgin del Valle 2012-

Panama-flagged, IMO 9600648, MMSI 373832000 and call sign HP4549. Gross tonnage 294 tons, deadweight 147 tons, displacement 540 tons and as dimensions 28,67 (overall) x 10,43 (over all) x 4,60 (depth at sides) x 4,80 (draught aft) metres. Two Caterpillar supplying totally 4.584ahp allowing a speed of 13,6 (astern)-13,7 (ahead) knots. Bollard pull 58,3 (astern)-60 (ahead) ton. Built by Damen, Gorinchem, Netherlands with yard number 51178 for account of MMG Tugs/Meyer‘s Group S.A. in 2012. Damen ASD tug 2810. 

Panamanian tug Arcangel San Miguel 2012-

Panama-flagged, IMO 9600750, MMSI 373831000 and call sign HP4015. Gross tonnage 294 tons, deadweight 147 tons, displacement 540 tons and as dimensions 28,67 (overall) x 10,43 (over all) x 4,60 (depth at sides) x 4,80 )draught aft) metres. Two Caterpillar supplying totally 4.584ahp allowing a speed of 13,4 (astern)-13,6 (ahead) knots. Bollard pull 58,4 (astern)-60,1 (ahead) ton. Built by Damen, Gorinchem, Netherlands with yard number 51179 for account of MMG Tugs/Meyer‘s Group S.A. in 2012. Damen ASD tug 2810. 

Sunday, 19 November 2017

Finnish bulk carrier Kumpula 2012-



Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 19 November 2017

Finland-flagged, homeport Helsinki, IMO 9590802, MMSI 230625000 and call sign OJPC. Owned and managed by ESL Shipping, Helsinki, Finland. Built by Hyundai Vinashin Shipyard, Ninh Phuoc, Vietnam in 2012. 

The Turkish defence plans according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

Turkish Yavuz Sultan Selim (ex-German Goeben)

An item referred to the magazine Revista Marittime dated September 1938 reporting that the Turkish defence policy included the strengthening of the defence works at the Dardanelles, the reinforcement of some islands in the Aegean Sea like Imbros and Tenedos and part of the coastline of Anatolia. At Izmir/Smyrna was a important marine airbase planned and at Guldjuk was a dock under construction large enough to docktthe 25.000 measuring Yavouz.(1)

Note
1. German Moltke-class battle cruiser Goeben. Sister ship Moltke. Building ordered on 8 April 1909, laid down at the shipyard of Blohm&Voss, Hamburg, Germany on 28 August 1909, launched on 28 March 1911, commissioned on 2 July 1912, handed over to the Turkish government on 16 August 1914, renamed Yavuz Sultan Selim and commissioned in the Turkish navy. Decommissioned on 20 December 1950, renamed Yavuz in 1935, stricken on 14 November 1954 and finally broken up in 1973. 

The realisation of the US naval shipbuilding program according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

North Carolina-class battleships
USS Wichita

An item referred to the Proceedings dated September 1938 reporting that on 1 July 1938 for account of the US Navy were under construction 2 battleships (1), 1 aircraft carrier(2), 1 heavy cruiser (3), 4 light cruisers, 10 submarines, 3-1.850 destroyers, 31-1.500 ton destroyers, 1 seaplane tender and 1 mother ship for destroyers.

Note
1. The North Carolina 35.000 ton fast battleships class consisting of the USS North Carolina, (laid down on 27 October 1937 and the Washington, laid down on 14 June 1938, preceded by the planned South Dakota and realized Colorado-classed and succeeded by the South Dakota-class.
2. That must be the Yorktown-class 20.100 ton aircraft carriers consisting of the USS Yorktown (CV-5) and Enterprise (CV-6), laid down on 16 July 1934, preceded by the USS Ranger and succeeded by the USS Ranger and Essex-class.
3. The USS Wichita (CA-45), laid down on 28 October 1935, launched on 16 November 1937 and commissioned on 16 February 1939?

Chinese bulk carrier Pretty Lamb 2012-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 14 November 2017

Panama-flagged, IMO 9502843, MMSI 373656000 and call sign 3EWG7. Built by Nantong Chang Qing Sha Shipyard, Rugao, China in 2012. Owned and managed by Parakou Shipping, Hong Kong, China. 

Greek oil products tanker (ex-Ice Blade 2008-2013) Lumen N 2013-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 17 November 2017

Panama-flagged, IMO 9346457, MMSI 355364000 and call sign 3FPC4. Ex-Ice Balde renamed August 2013. Built by STX Offfshore&Shipbuilding, Jinhae, South Korea in 2008. Owned by Maran Tankers Management and managed by Navios Tankers Management, both at Athens, Greece. 

Greek bulk carrier Georgitsi 2012-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 14 November 2017

Marshall Islands-flagged, homeport Majuro, IMO 9590113, MMSI 538004242 and call sign V7VY5. Built by Sungdong Shipbuilding&Marine Engineering, Tongyoung, South Korea in 2012. Owned and managed by EFShipping, Athens, Greece. 

Dutch East Indies schooner Kim Soen Ho cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 28 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 27th reported the arrival of the Dutch East Indies schooner Kim Soen Ho master Lie Oen Tit coming from Eiland Amsterdam, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note
1. Identical to the Kem Soen Ho with as homeport Bandjermassin, call sign TFSG and net capacity 414,14 cubic metress/146,33 tons of 2,83 cubic metres?

British steamship Galley of Lorne cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 27 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 27th reported the departure of the British steamship Galley of Lorne master Grandin towards Panaroekan, Dutch East Indies. 

Dutch government hopper barge Bantam cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 27 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies reported the departure of the Dutch government hopper barge Bantam master Boer towards the Duizend Eilanden, Dutch East Indies with as tow the schooner Lucy. 

Dutch East Indies steamship Devonhurst cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 27 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 27th reported the departure of the Dutch East Indies steamship Devonhurst master Duinker towards Muntok, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note
1. Homeport Batavia, call sign TCMR and net capacity 3.494,44 cubic metres/1.234,78 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch steamship Gouverneur Generaal ‘s Jacob cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 27 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies reported the departure of the Dutch steamship G.G. ‘s Jacob master De Blinde towards Samarang and Surabaya, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note
1. Dutch East Indies-flagged, homeport Batavia, horsepower 200hp, call sign TDMB and net capacity 4.440,33 cubic metres/1.569,02 tons of ,2,83 cubic metres. 

Saturday, 18 November 2017

Finnish tug (ex-Heimo Saarinen 1980-1989) Neptun 1989-

Rauma, Finland August 2015

Finland-flagged, IMO 7917965, MMSI 230279000 and call sign OIKS. Gross tonnage 324 ton, net tonnage 98 ton and as dimensions 31,63 x 9,6 x 5,6 metres. Speed 13 knots. Bollard pull 37 ton. Built by Hollming, Rauma, Finland in 1980. Ex-Heimo Saarinen renamed July 1989. Operated by Alfons Hakans Oy AB or owned and managed by Wimal S.C. 

German container ship Flotbek 2005-2017 (Baltic Petrel 2017-)


Kieler Canal August 2017

As the Baltic Petrel Cyprus-flagged, homeport Limassol, IMO 9313216, MMSI 212733000 and call sign 5BSJ4. As the Flotbek owned and managed by Hamburger Lloyd, Hamburg, Germany. Liberia-flagged, homeport Monrovia, MMSI 636092196 and built by Meyer Neptun Papenburg, Papenburg, Germany in 2005. 

Russian cargo ship (ex-Aleksey Kortunov 1994-2004) Surgut 2004-


Kieler Canal August 2017

Russia-flagged, homeport Temryuk, IMO 9119361, MMSI 273452000 and call sign UBRB. Ex-Aleksey Korunov renamed 2004. Owned and managed by Marine Shipping, St. Petersburg, Russia. Built by Krasnoye Sormovo Shipyard, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia in 1994. 

Finnish lightship Relandersgrund 1888-

Helsinki. Finland, August 2017

Built by Crichton&Co. AB, Turky in 1888, sent to Rauma, Finland in July 1914, according to a story sunk when Russian crewmembers were celebrating the revolution in the Gulf of Finland in 1917, salvaged and repaired at Tallinn, Estonia in 1918, went to Helsinki, Finland and converted into the reserve lightship Reserv I, decommissioned on 1037, renamed Vuolle converted into an expedition vessel during 1937-1978, sold to be broken up in 1978 but saved and nowadays floating restaurant Displacement 168 tons and as length 27,10 metres. 

Italy building cruisers Taksin and Naresuan for Siam according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1939 no. 8

An item referred to the Proceedings dated May 1939 reporting that the cruisers built at Trieste, Italy for account of Siam would have a displacement of 4.800 ton, the maximum speed would be around 30 knots and the main armament would consist of 6-15cm/5.9” guns.(1)

Note
1. Shipyard was CRDA, Trieste. Both ships were in September 1939 purchased by the Italian navy, the Taksin became the Etna and the Naresuan the Vesuvio. Both ships were still uncompleted scuttled in September 1943 and after the war broken up. Their standard displacement was 6.000 tons. The main armament in Italian service was to be 3x2-13,5cm/5.3” guns. 

Service of Swedish sea militia increased according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1939 no. 8

An item referred to the Proceedings dated May 1939 reporting that Sweden increased the service for her sea militia from 200 to 340 days. 

Sweden intended to built submarine mother ship Svea according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1939 no. 8

An item referred to the Proceedings dated May 1939 reporting that Sweden intended to lay down the submarine mother ship Svea with as dimensions 93 x 13,2 metres and a displacement  of 2.600 tons. Estimated building costs 4,6 million Swedish crones. 

British steamship Falshaw underway from the Dutch East Indies towards Egyot according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 27 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 26th reported the departure of the British steamship Falshaw master Bennett towards Port Saïd, Egypt. 

Dutch government barge Tagal cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 27 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 26th reported the arrival of the Dutch government barge Tagal master Stokhorst coming from Kalianda, Dutch East Indies. 

Norwegian bark Racehorse underway from Singapore towards Burma according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 27 August 1889

An item dated 26th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the Norwegian bark Racehorse underway from Singapore towards Moulmein [Mawlaminye, Burma]. 

Royal Netherlands Navy stricken all her spar torpedo boats in 1904-1904

An item reported that the Netherlands Royal navy disarmed all her spar torpedo boats which were all stricken from the list of active service. The boats stayed available for training purposes.

Source
Jaarboek van de Koninklijke Nederlandsche Zeemacht 1904-1905. 

Dutch steam pilot vessel Hellevoetsluis handed over to the Dutch pilot service in 1905

An item reported that the completion of the fourth Dutch steam pilot vessel Hellevoetsluis at the navy yard at Amsterdam, Netherlands continued. She was docked between 19-26 October 1904, executed trials while berthed on 25 November 1905, executed with success her trials on 17 and 19 December 1904, returned to the shipyard where she was completed and painted and handed over to the pilotage service.

Source
Jaarboek van de Koninklijke Nederlandsche Zeemacht 1904-1905. 

Friday, 17 November 2017

Finnish 3-mast schooner Jan Mayen (A6364) (1914)


Helsinki, Finland, August 2017

Finland-flagged, homeport Helsinki, Finland. Built at Fredrikshavn, Jutland, Denmark in 1914 of oak. Former Magdalena or MariA Magadalena. Dimensions 27,08 (hull)-34 (over all) x 6,76 x 2,5 metres and gross tonnage 93,92 tons. A so-called Marstal schooner. Seized by the Finnish government because she was smuggling. Ex-Venus? As the MP 1 until 1956 also used by the border patrol. 

Finnish boat Ilmari

Helsinki, Finland, August 2017

Finnish boat Strömsdal (2013)

Helsinki, Finland, August 2017

Appraisal of 5x3-15,2cm/6” gun arrangement for cruisers by Italian naval expert Bianco di San Secondo according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

An item referred to the Rivista Marittime dated July/August 1938 which published an article written by colonel of naval weapons Bianco di San Secondo in which he made clear why 15,2cm/6” gun were to preferred above the 20,3cm/8” gun as main armament for a cruiser. He did not deny that a hit by a 20,3cm shell could cause much more damage than a 15,2cm shell. But it all depends on what was the target. That were in fact merchant ships, light units below the 3.000 ton and cruisers with an armour of just 6cm or with only the vital parts protected (by 1015cm). The high explosive shell was just effective against armour with a maximum thickness of 30cm regardless a calibre of 6” or 8”. While a 6” gun had a larger rate of fire was she even more effective than a 8” gun. Using shells suitable for penetrating armour was on a longer distance the 8” gun more effective, dealing with a thickness of 6cm no difference but with a thickness of 10cm and more was a 6” shell just able to penetrate on short distance from the opponent. The maximum range of a 6” gun was 25 and that of a 8” gun 30 kilometres. But still the rate of fire of a 6” was higher, a larger number was better for the fire control, easier to man and mechanical problems were less fatale than with 8” guns. Reckoning that a 6” gun had 75% of the score of a 8” guns he calculated the several options with as main conclusion that the main armament of a cruiser should be 6” and not 8“. The 5x3 gun arrangement was the most promising with the highest probably score.

With a 5x3-15,2cm/6” gun arrangement was the weight of the armament 750 tons, broadside weight salvo 750 kilo’s and a fire rate of 5 was it possible to fire 75 shells in a minute or every minute 3.750 kilo’s. Weight ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 150, 225 and 300 tons. Weight armament and ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 900,985 and 1.050 tons. Probable number of hits 56,25. 

Soviet Union kept naval shipbuilding program secret according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad 1939 no. 2

An item referred to the magazine Revista Marittime dated November 1938reporting that Russia still kept her navy building program secret despite that she ought to inform (confidential) England as a result of the naval treaty with that country. (1)

Note
1,.The Anglo-Soviet Naval Agreement of 1937. 

Anti aircraft pontoons better than into aircraft defence vessels converted destroyers according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad 1939 no. 4

An item referred to the magazine Marine Rundschau dated January 1939 reporting that the conversions of aged destroyers into aircraft defence vessels criticised because experts doubted if there was a sufficient control of fire possible for this kind of very active ships. For the air defence the harbours of London, England and other cities was proposed to use pontoons fitted out with an anti aircraft armament in stead. The pontoons could at the same time be used as ammunition ships and accommodation ship and anchored nearby the object to be defended. It seems to be that already such pontoons at Whale Island near Portsmouth, England were tested. 

Lithuania wanted to increase her navy according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad 1939 no. 2

An item referred to the Revista Marittime dated November 1938 reporting that the Lithuanian navy consisted on that moment of 1-500 ton patrol vessel which was a former minesweeper.(1) At that moment was the building of a cruiser and a gunboat by Italian shipyards ordered.

Note
1. In 1937 purchased as the former German minesweeper M59 and commissioned as the training ship Prezidentas Smetona, seized by the Soviet Union on 15 June 1940, commissioned as the Kopan and sunk while striking a mine in January 1945. 

Soviet navy shipyards in the Baltic lacking sufficient capacity according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad 1939 no. 2

An item referred to the Revista Marittime dated November 1938 reporting that the crews of the Baltic fleet did everything in the winter of 1937-1938 to repair and prepare the ships before going to sea again. The major part was indeed ready to participate the manoeuvres when the ice broke. Despite that the roads of Kronstadt on 9 April still was half frozen started two submarines with the training followed a few days later by other with individual trainings. It became clear that the navy shipyards even for the normal repairs were lacking sufficient capacity while some ships just after a considerable long period could go to sea. 

Dutch destroyer Hr.Ms. Isaac Sweers (G83) 1938-1942

Admiralen-class




Of the Gerard Callenburgh-class consisting of the Philips van Almonde, Isaac Sweers and Tjerk Hides, preceded by the Admiral-class and succeeded by the Holland-class. Central administration by the Rotterdamsche Droogdok Maatschappij. 816 Ton of steel ordered on 10 November 1937, steel arrived at the shipyard on 2 May 1938, building ordered on 19 May 1938, contract signed on 13 June/8 September 1938m administration started on 17 June 1938, laid down in shed at the eastside on the island of the shipyard Kon. Mij. De Schelde with yard number 212 on 28 November 1938, boilers placed between 3-5 January 1940, launched by Mrs. J.L.B. v.d. Arend-Keers on 16 March 1940, stability test on 26 March 1940, escaped still uncompleted from the yard towards Portsmouth, England supported by the Dutch tug Zwarte Zee on 10 May 1940, arrived there on 12 May 1940, completed and commissioned on 24 May 1941 and torpedoed in the Mediterranean by the German submarines U-431 on 13 November 1942 causing the death of 108 men. Super visor during the building on behalf of the Royal Netherlands Navy was chief engineer G. ‘t Hooft.

The technical details according to the yard order administration. Displacement 1.628 (standard)-1.922 (trial with a draught of 3,10 metres)-2.252 (fully loaded) tons and as dimensions 105 (between perpendiculars)-106,30 (over all) x 10,30 c 6,17 (height) x 3,10 (trial)-3,50 metres. Fitted out with 17 water and oil tight bulkheads. Crew numbered 150-194 men. Fuel oil bunker capacity 590 ton. Drinkwater capacity 38 ton and feed water capacity 25 ton. Horsepower 45.000ahp. Speed 36 knots. Number of screws 2. Armament consisted of 2x2-12cm and 1-12cm/4.7” guns, 2-4cm machine guns, 2x4-12,7mm/0.50” machineguns, 2x4 torpedo guns (for which 8 torpedoes were available), 9 depth charges, and 24 mines. Could carry a Fokker aircraft with her.

In practice consisted the armament of 3x2-10,2cm/4” cal 45 Mk XVI quick firing guns, 2x2-cm/1.6” cal 56 Bofors No. 3 anti aircraft guns, 2x4-12,7mm/0.50” cal 52 Vickers Mk III machineguns and 2x4-53,3cm/21” torpedo tubes. The 3 Yarrow Parsons geared turbines and 3 Yarrow boilers supplied 45.000hp allowing a speed of 37,5 knots and with a speed of 15 knots a range of 3.200 nautical miles.

French steamship Godavery arrived in the Dutch East Indies coming from Singapore according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 10th reported the arrival of the French steamship Godavery master Frager coming from Singapore, shipping agents Mess. Maritimes. 

Dutch steamship Batavia underway from the Netherlands towards the Dutch East Indiesaccording to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated 9th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the Dutch steamship Batavia underway from Rotterdam, Netherlands towards Batavia, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note
1. Call sign NGPW, screw steamship, homeport Rotterdam, Netherlands, horsepower 200hp and net capacity 4.604,44 cubic metres/1.625,37 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch East Indies schooner Tjin Ek Hong cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 8 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 8th reported the departure of the Dutch East Indies schooner Tjin Ek Hong master Darman towards Telok Betong, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note
1. Or Tjien Ek Hong, call sign TJFL, homeport Batavia and net capacity 192,47 cubic metres/68,01 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch East Indies steamship Baron van Tuyll cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 8 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 8th reported the departure of the Dutch East Indies steamship Baron van Tuyll master Mondt towards Billiton, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note
1. Call sign TBSG, homeport Batavia and net tonnage 601,96 cubic metres/212,70 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch steamship Zeeland cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 7 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies  reported the arrival of the Dutch steamship Zeeland master Kromwijk coming from Tagal, Dutch East Indies, shipping agents Rotterdamsche Lloyd.(1)

Note
1. Call sign QCWT, horsepower 220hp, homeport Rotterdam and net capacity 4.288,24 cubic metres/1.513,75 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Thursday, 16 November 2017

Norwegian bulk carrier (ex-Cape Rodney 1976-1985, Rodney 1985-1986) CHL Innovator 1986-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 10 November 2017

Singapore-flagged, IMO 7342469, MMSI 563410000 and call sign 9VNG. Ex-Cape Rodney renamed 1985 and Rodney renamed 1986. Owned and managed by Gearbulk Norway, Bergen, Norway. Built by BAE Systems Surface Ships Govan, Glasgow, United Kingdom in 1976. 

British general cargo ship (ex-Monica C 2009-2014) Wes Monica 2014-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 12 November 2017

Antigua&Barbuda-flagged, IMO 9432517, MMSI 304014000 and cal sign V2GN6. Ex-Monica C renamed 7 March 2014. Owned by Carisbrooke Shipping UK, Cowes, Isle of Wight and managed by Carisbrooke Shipmanagement, Leer, Germany. Built by Jiangsu Yangzijang Shipyard, Jiangyin, China in 2009. 

Dutch steamship Prins van Oranje cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 9th reported the departure of the Dutch steamship Prins van Oranje master Van der Woude towards Cheribon, Samarang, Surabaya and Joana, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note 
1. Call sign PQNL, screw steamship, horsepower 400hp, homeport Amsterdam, Netherlands and net capacity 1,829ton/6.073,94 cubic metres/2.144,10 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch East Indies steamship Mayflower underway from the Netherlands towards Singapore according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 10th reported the departure of the Dutch East Indies steamship Mayflower master Niederfuhr towards Singapore.(1)

Note
1. Call sign TGKS, homeport Palembang, Dutch East Indies and net capacity 644,31 cubic metres/227,67 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch East Indies steamship Cheribon cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 10th reported the departure of the Dutch East Indies steamship Cheribon master Krijger towards Cheribon, Tagal, Pecalongan, Samarang and Surabaya, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note
1. Call sign TCLB, homeport Batavia and net capacity 1.184,62 cubic metress/418,59 tons of. 283 cubic metres. 

Dutch steamship Zeeland underway towards Ceylon, France and the Netherlands according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 10th reported the departure of the Dutch steamship Zeeland master Kromwijk towards Colombo (Ceylon), Marseille (France) and Rotterdam (Netherlands).(1)

Note
1. Call sign QCWT, horsepower 220hp, homeport Rotterdam and net capacity 4.288,24 cubic metres/1.513,75 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch East Indies schooner Apie Maas cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 10th reported the departure of the Dutch East Indies schooner Apie Maas master Mohamad Djoeat towards Bantam, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note
1. Call sign TBLN, homeport Muntok, Dutch East Indies and net capacity 21,87 cubic metres/75,21 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Japanese bulk carrier King Barley 2012-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 12 November 2017

Panama-flagged, IMO 9583160, MMSI 373049000 and call sign 3FMD8. Owned and managed by MMS, Tokyo, Japan. Built by Tsuneishi Shipbuilding, Fukuyama, Japan in 2012. 

Singapore oil/chemical tanker (ex-Siva Ghent 2011-2013) Bochem Ghent 2013-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 11 November 2017

Hong Kong-flagged, IMO 9565649, MMSI 477351300 and call sign VRIA8. Ex-Siva Ghent renamed June 2013. Owned by Siva Ships International, Singapore and managed by Fairfield Chemical Carriers, Wilton, Connecticut, USA. Built by Kitanihon Shipbuilding, Hachinohe, Japan in 2011. 

British schooner Bessie underway from Singapore towards Mauritius according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 27 August 1889

An item dated 26th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the British schooner Bessie underway from Singapore towards Mauritius. 

British bark Sanjore underway from the Philippines towards Canada according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 27 August 1889

An item dated 25th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the British bark Sanjore underway from Ilo-Ilo, Philippines towards Montreal, Canada. 

British bark Diana underway from the Dutch East Indies towards the Channel according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 23 August 1889

An item dated 21th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the British bark Diana underway from Bezoeki. Dutch East Indies towards the Channel. 

British steamship Celestial cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 10th reported the departure of the British steamship Celestial master Follett towards Cheribon, Dutch East Indies. 

Wednesday, 15 November 2017

Japanese oil/chemical tanker Chemstar Jewel 2012-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 10 November 2017

Panama-flagged, IMO 9624782, MMSI 373353000 and call sign 3FNI3. Built by Asakawa Shipbuilding, Imabari, Japan in 2012. Owned and managed by Iino Marine Services, Tokyo, Japan in 2012. 

Monaco LPG tanker Cheyenne 2015-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 5 November 2017

Bahamas-flagged, homeport Nassau, IMO 9706504, MMSI 311000387 and call sign C6BW8. Owned and managed by Scorpio Commercial Management, Monaco. Built by Hyundai Samho Heavy Industries, Samho, South Koreas as the Marshall Islands-flagged Hyundai Samho S756 in 2015. 

Appraisal of 4x3-15,2cm/6” gun arrangement for cruisers by Italian naval expert Bianco di San Secondo according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

An item referred to the Rivista Marittime dated July/August 1938 which published an article written by colonel of naval weapons Bianco di San Secondo in which he made clear why 15,2cm/6” gun were to preferred above the 20,3cm/8” gun as main armament for a cruiser. He did not deny that a hit by a 20,3cm shell could cause much more damage than a 15,2cm shell. But it all depends on what was the target. That were in fact merchant ships, light units below the 3.000 ton and cruisers with an armour of just 6cm or with only the vital parts protected (by 1015cm). The high explosive shell was just effective against armour with a maximum thickness of 30cm regardless a calibre of 6” or 8”. While a 6” gun had a larger rate of fire was she even more effective than a 8” gun. Using shells suitable for penetrating armour was on a longer distance the 8” gun more effective, dealing with a thickness of 6cm no difference but with a thickness of 10cm and more was a 6” shell just able to penetrate on short distance from the opponent. The maximum range of a 6” gun was 25 and that of a 8” gun 30 kilometres. But still the rate of fire of a 6” was higher, a larger number was better for the fire control, easier to man and mechanical problems were less fatale than with 8” guns. Reckoning that a 6” gun had 75% of the score of a 8” guns he calculated the several options with as main conclusion that the main armament of a cruiser should be 6” and not 8“. The 5x3 gun arrangement was the most promising with the highest probably score.

With a 4x3-15,2cm/6” gun arrangement was the weight of the armament 600 tons, broadside weight salvo 600 kilo’s and a fire rate of 5 was it possible to fire 60 shells in a minute or every minute 3.000 kilo’s. Weight ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 120, 185 and 240 tons. Weight armament and ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 720, 780 and 840 tons. Probable number of hits 45. 

Appraisal of 2x3&2x2-15,2cm/6” gun arrangement for cruisers by Italian naval expert Bianco di San Secondo according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

An item referred to the Rivista Marittime dated July/August 1938 which published an article written by colonel of naval weapons Bianco di San Secondo in which he made clear why 15,2cm/6” gun were to preferred above the 20,3cm/8” gun as main armament for a cruiser. He did not deny that a hit by a 20,3cm shell could cause much more damage than a 15,2cm shell. But it all depends on what was the target. That were in fact merchant ships, light units below the 3.000 ton and cruisers with an armour of just 6cm or with only the vital parts protected (by 1015cm). The high explosive shell was just effective against armour with a maximum thickness of 30cm regardless a calibre of 6” or 8”. While a 6” gun had a larger rate of fire was she even more effective than a 8” gun. Using shells suitable for penetrating armour was on a longer distance the 8” gun more effective, dealing with a thickness of 6cm no difference but with a thickness of 10cm and more was a 6” shell just able to penetrate on short distance from the opponent. The maximum range of a 6” gun was 25 and that of a 8” gun 30 kilometres. But still the rate of fire of a 6” was higher, a larger number was better for the fire control, easier to man and mechanical problems were less fatale than with 8” guns. Reckoning that a 6” gun had 75% of the score of a 8” guns he calculated the several options with as main conclusion that the main armament of a cruiser should be 6” and not 8“. The 5x3 gun arrangement was the most promising with the highest probably score.

With a 2x3&2x2-15,2cm/6” gun arrangement was the weight of the armament 540 tons, broadside weight salvo 500 kilo’s and a fire rate 5 of was it possible to fire 52 shells in a minute or every minute 2.500 kilo’s. Weight ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 100, 150 and 200 tons. Weight armament and ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 640, 610 and 740 tons. Probable number of hits 37,50. 

American ship Annie H. Smith underway from the USA towards China according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated 9th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the American ship Annie H. Smith underway from New York, USA towards Shanghai, China. 

Norwegian shuttle tanker Ingrid Knutsen 2013-


Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 5 November 2017

United Kingdom-flagged, homeport Aberdeen, IMO 9649225, MMSI 235103057 and call sign 2HERS. Built by Hyundai Heavy Industries, Ulsan, South Korea in 2013. Owned by Knutsen OAS Shipping and managed by Knot Management, both of Haugesund, Norway. 

British ship Goldenhorn underway from French Indochina towards Queenstown according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 8 August 1889

An item dated 6th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the British ship Goldenhorn underway from Saigon, French Indochina towards Queenstown. 

British steamship Devonshire underway from the Dutch East Indies towards Egypt according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 8 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 8th reported the departure of the British steamship Devonshire master Purvis towards Port Saïd, Egypt. 

German bark Elisabeth Rickmers underway from Thailand towards Germany according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated 8th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the German bark Elisabeth Rickmers underway from Bangkok, Thailand towards Bremen, Germany. 

Tuesday, 14 November 2017

Singapore bulk carrier Mandarin Fortune 2008-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 5 November 2017

Singapore-flagged, IMO 9478169, MMSI 563838000 and call sign S6BQ7. Owned and managed by Da Sin Shipping, Singapore. Owned and managed by Jiangsu Hantong Ship Heavy Industry, Tongzhou, China. 

British ship Baron Blantyre arrived in the Dutch East Indies coming from England according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 23 August 1889

An item reported the arrival of the British ship Baron Blantyre off Anjer, Dutch East Indies loaded with coal coming from Cardiff, United Kingdom waiting for orders. 

Italian steamship Palestro arrived in the Dutch East Indies coming from Japan according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 23 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 23rd reported the arrival of the Italian steamship Palestro coming from Kobe, Japan, shipping agents Mclaine Watson&Co. 

Dutch East Indies steamship Cheribon cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 23 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 22nd reported the arrival of the Dutch East Indies steamship Cheribon master Krijger coming from Surabaya, Dutch East Indies. Shipping agents N.T. St. Maatschappij.(1)

Note
1. Call sign TCLB, homeport Batavia and net capacity 1.184,62 cubic metres/418,59 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch East Indies bark Borneo cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 23 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 23rd reported the departure of the Dutch East Indies bark Borneo master Tjong Tjin Koeij towards Surabaya, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note
1. Call sign TCJB, homeport Bandjermassin, Dutch East Indies and net capacity 1.231,30 cubic metres/425,08 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch steamship Bromo arrived in the Dutch East Indies coming from the Netherlands and France according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 21 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 21st reported the arrival of the Dutch steamship Bromo coming from Rotterdam, Netherlands and Marseille, France, shipping agents Rotterdamsche Lloyd.(1)

Note
1. Homeport Rotterdam, call sign NHKS and net capacity 5.124,93 cubic metres/1.810,91 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch tug Sil-Jeske-B 2015-



Inner harbour of Vlissingen, Netherlands of 4 November 2017

Netherlands-flagged, homeport Zierikzee, Netherlands, IMO 9769245, MMSI 244870247 and call sign PDCJ. Completed by Gebr. Kooiman, Zwijndrecht, Netherlands with yard number 207for account of Koedood BV, Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht in October 2015. Operated by BMS Seatowage BV/W. Bouwman Marine Service BV, Zierikzee, Netherlands. Gross tonnage 239 tons, deadweight 78 tons and as dimensions 23,95 (over all) x 8,00 x 3,20 (maximum) x 6,80 (minimum air draft) metres. Bollard pull 30,6 tons. 

Dutch trawler Tunis Van Luut (UK-224) 1998-



Inner harbour of Vlissingen, Netherlands of 4 November 2017

Netherlands-flagged, IMO 9044786, MMSI 246015000 and call sign PGBK. Built by Scheepswerf Maaskant, Stellendam, Netherlands in 1998. 

Appraisal of 3x3-20,3cm/8” gun arrangement for cruisers by Italian naval expert Bianco di San Secondo according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

An item referred to the Rivista Marittime dated July/August 1938 which published an article written by colonel of naval weapons Bianco di San Secondo in which he made clear why 15,2cm/6” gun were to preferred above the 20,3cm/8” gun as main armament for a cruiser. He did not deny that a hit by a 20,3cm shell could cause much more damage than a 15,2cm shell. But it all depends on what was the target. That were in fact merchant ships, light units below the 3.000 ton and cruisers with an armour of just 6cm or with only the vital parts protected (by 1015cm). The high explosive shell was just effective against armour with a maximum thickness of 30cm regardless a calibre of 6” or 8”. While a 6” gun had a larger rate of fire was she even more effective than a 8” gun. Using shells suitable for penetrating armour was on a longer distance the 8” gun more effective, dealing with a thickness of 6cm no difference but with a thickness of 10cm and more was a 6” shell just able to penetrate on short distance from the opponent. The maximum range of a 6” gun was 25 and that of a 8” gun 30 kilometres. But still the rate of fire of a 6” was higher, a larger number was better for the fire control, easier to man and mechanical problems were less fatale than with 8” guns. Reckoning that a 6” gun had 75% of the score of a 8” guns he calculated the several options with as main conclusion that the main armament of a cruiser should be 6” and not 8“. The 5x3 gun arrangement was the most promising with the highest probably score.

With a 3x3-20,3cm/8” gun arrangement was the weight of the armament 1.020 tons, broadside weight salvo 1.125 kilo’s and a fire rate of 3 was it possible to fire 27 shells in a minute or every minute 3.375 kilo’s. Weight ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 171,257 and 342 tons. Weight armament and ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 1.191, 1.277 and 1.362 tons. Probable number of hits 27. 

Appraisal of 4x2-20,3cm/8” gun arrangement for cruisers by Italian naval expert Bianco di San Secondo according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

An item referred to the Rivista Marittime dated July/August 1938 which published an article written by colonel of naval weapons Bianco di San Secondo in which he made clear why 15,2cm/6” gun were to preferred above the 20,3cm/8” gun as main armament for a cruiser. He did not deny that a hit by a 20,3cm shell could cause much more damage than a 15,2cm shell. But it all depends on what was the target. That were in fact merchant ships, light units below the 3.000 ton and cruisers with an armour of just 6cm or with only the vital parts protected (by 1015cm). The high explosive shell was just effective against armour with a maximum thickness of 30cm regardless a calibre of 6” or 8”. While a 6” gun had a larger rate of fire was she even more effective than a 8” gun. Using shells suitable for penetrating armour was on a longer distance the 8” gun more effective, dealing with a thickness of 6cm no difference but with a thickness of 10cm and more was a 6” shell just able to penetrate on short distance from the opponent. The maximum range of a 6” gun was 25 and that of a 8” gun 30 kilometres. But still the rate of fire of a 6” was higher, a larger number was better for the fire control, easier to man and mechanical problems were less fatale than with 8” guns. Reckoning that a 6” gun had 75% of the score of a 8” guns he calculated the several options with as main conclusion that the main armament of a cruiser should be 6” and not 8“. The 5x3 gun arrangement was the most promising with the highest probably score.

With a 4x2-20,3cm/8” gun arrangement was the weight of the armament 1.080 tons, broadside weight salvo 1.000 kilo’s and a fire rate of 3 was it possible to fire 24 shells in a minute or every minute 3.000 kilo’s. Weight ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 152, 228 and 304 tons. Weight armament and ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 1.232, 1.308 and 1.384 tons. Probable number of hits 24. 

Appraisal of 3x2-20,3cm/8” gun arrangement for cruisers by Italian naval expert Bianco di San Secondo according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

An item referred to the Rivista Marittime dated July/August 1938 which published an article written by colonel of naval weapons Bianco di San Secondo in which he made clear why 15,2cm/6” gun were to preferred above the 20,3cm/8” gun as main armament for a cruiser. He did not deny that a hit by a 20,3cm shell could cause much more damage than a 15,2cm shell. But it all depends on what was the target. That were in fact merchant ships, light units below the 3.000 ton and cruisers with an armour of just 6cm or with only the vital parts protected (by 1015cm). The high explosive shell was just effective against armour with a maximum thickness of 30cm regardless a calibre of 6” or 8”. While a 6” gun had a larger rate of fire was she even more effective than a 8” gun. Using shells suitable for penetrating armour was on a longer distance the 8” gun more effective, dealing with a thickness of 6cm no difference but with a thickness of 10cm and more was a 6” shell just able to penetrate on short distance from the opponent. The maximum range of a 6” gun was 25 and that of a 8” gun 30 kilometres. But still the rate of fire of a 6” was higher, a larger number was better for the fire control, easier to man and mechanical problems were less fatale than with 8” guns. Reckoning that a 6” gun had 75% of the score of a 8” guns he calculated the several options with as main conclusion that the main armament of a cruiser should be 6” and not 8“. The 5x3 gun arrangement was the most promising with the highest probably score.

With a 3x2-20,3cm/8” gun arrangement was the weight of the armament 810 tons, broadside weight salvo 750 kilo’s and a fire rate of 3 was it possible to fire 18 shells in a minute or every minute 2.250 kilo’s. Weight ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 114, 171 and 288 tons. Weight armament and ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 924, 981 and 1.038 tons. Probable number of hits 18. 

Monday, 13 November 2017

German rear admiral Grassmann discussed the needed cruiser types according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

An item referred to the Militär Wissenschaftliche Rundschau where an article of admiral Grassman was published evaluating the needed types of cruisers.
For protecting merchant ships within the range of naval bases were 6.000-8.000 ton cruiser perfect at open sea. Their rearmament was to consist of 4-20,3cm/8” guns and the armour able to protected against 15cm/5.9” shells. The maximum speed was to be 3 knots. Further more was such cruiser able to take 4-6 planes with her.
For supporting the fleet was a cruiser of 4.000-5.000 ton, light armoured just protecting the vital parts, a speed of around 40 knots, an armament of  6-15cm/5.9” (3 fore, 3aft) and a strong anti-aircraft battery the ideal type for reconnaissance, protection of the weaker units and battling with destroyers and torpedo boats. For tactical reconnaissance during a sea battle was the modern large destroyer the best solution.
For disturbing enemy shipping lines was each fighting unit ranging from battleship to submarine usable. If naval powers wanted to use a cruiser as merchant destroyer was a special cruiser to be designed. Lacking nearby naval bases was the fast cruiser dating from the second part of the First World War the ideal type for such purpose.
His main conclusion was a cruise suitable for tasks did not exist.

Note
1. Werner Grassmann (9 March 1888 Berlin, Germany-20 October 943 Berlin, Germany), promoted to the rank of rear admiral on 1 October 1937 and to vice admiral on 1 January 1940. Entered the Imperial Navy on 3April 1907 and retired on 31 May 1943. 

Monaco oil/chemical tanker (ex-Antignano 2002-2012) Duke-1 2012-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 12 November 2017

Panama-flagged, IMO 9228784, MMSI 352642000 and call sign 3FBO. Ex-Antignano renamed December 2012. Owned and managed by Sea World Management, Monaco. Built by Hyundai Mipo Dockyard, Ulsan, South Korea in 2002. 

Chinese reefer Star Trust 2009-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 12 November 2017

Singapore-flagged, IMO 9438511, MMSI 566049000 and call sign 9V9353. Owned by OOCL, Hong Kong, China and managed by Philsynergy Maritime, Manila, Philippines. Built by Shikoku Dockyard, Takamatsu, Japan in 2009. 

Greek crude oil tanker (ex-Magas 2000-2006, Ivan Kruzenshtern 2006-2007, Green Forest 2007-2012) Ice Condor 2012-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 12 November 2017

Russia-flagged, IMO 9171187, MMSI 273434350 and call sign UENT. Ex Magas renamed April 2006, Ivan Kruzenshtern renamed November 2007 and Green Forest renamed November 2012. Earlier Malta-flagged with as homeport Valletta. Owned and managed by Roswell Tankers. Athens, Greece. Built by Admiralty Wharves, St. Petersburg, Russia in 2000.